The first records of Bukhara are known from the Chinese sources of the middle of II c. B.C. At the start of the first millennium Bukhara was in the composition of Kushan Empire. The encroachment of the troops of Arab caliphate started upon Bukhara oasis in the second half of VII century.
This was accompanied by the ravages and plunder in the town. But already in IX c. the representatives of the local nobility in the person of Ismail Samani used the struggle of the national masses for the independence. As a result of these events there was established the centralized feudal state independent from caliphate.